STONE PROPERTIES

Granite

Granite are igneous rocks, very hard, crystalline, and primarily composed of feldspar, quartz accompanied by one or more dark minerals. It is visibly homogeneous in texture. Granite as a hard building stone, finds a great place in building architecture and also has great monumental applications. Due to its hardness, resistance to weathering for decades and centuries , capability to take high gloss , availability in fascinating colors and textural patterns, granite slabs and granite tiles are extremely popular world wide .

The principal characteristics of granite also include high load bearing capacity, crushing strength, abrasive strength, amenability to cutting and shaping without secondary flaws, ability to yield thin and large slabs and - above all - durability.

Physical Properties of Granite

Physically, commercial granites are Hard, Compact rocks with fine to coarse grains of igneous origin.

Hardness

6 to 7 on Moh's Scale

Density

2.6 to 2.8 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

140 to 210 N/mm2

Modulus of Rupture

15 to 25 N/mm2

Water Absorption

0.1-0.6%

Average Wear

Less then 1%

Porosity

Quite low

Weather Impact

High resistant

 

Chemical Properties of Granite

Chemically, they are igneous rocks composed of quartz, feldspar & ferromagnesian minerals like kriolite, chlorite, garnet, etc. A typical granite will have following chemical composition:

Silica (SiO2)

70-75%

Al2O3

10-15%

CaO+MgO

Less then 0.5%

FeO + Fe2O3

2-4%

Alkalies

4-6%

TiO2

Less then 0.5%

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

Less then 0.5%

Uses of Granite

Traditionally the main use of black granite has been as tombstones and other monumental items but with increase in its availability and processing facilities world wide , it has been a promominet dimensional stone used in flooring cladding stair cases , kitchen tops , counters , vanities , basins , in luxury or common household or commercial places.

Marble

Marble is formed from limestone with heat and pressure over years in the earth's crust. These pressure or forces cause the limestone to change in texture and makeup. The process is called recrystallization. Fossilized materials in the limestone, along with its original carbonate minerals, recrystallize and form large, coarse grains of calcite.There are many minerals which get mixed into calcite as impurities during recrystallization process and give marble a wide variety of colors. The purest calcite marble is white in colour. Marble containing hematite are #d98603dish in color. Marble that has limonite is yellow, and marble with serpentine is green in colour. Those marble having a portion of 95% or more of calcites are called calcite marble while those with atleast 40 % magnesium content are called dolomite marble. The other varieties include magnesium and onyx marbles.

Physical Properties of Marble

Hardness

3 to 4 on Moh's Scale

Density

2.55 to 2.7 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

70 to 140 N/mm2

Modulus of Rupture

12 to 18 N/mm2

Water Absorption

Less than 0.5%
(except Rainforest Green/Brown with 2-3%)

Porosity

Quite low

Weather Impact

Resistant


Chemical Properties of Marble


Chemically, they are crystalline rocks composed p#d98603ominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine minerals. The other minor constituents vary from origin to origin.

Lime (CaO)

28-32%

Silica (SiO2)

3-30% (varies with variety)

MgO

20 to 25%

FeO + Fe2O3

1-3%

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

20-45%


Uses of Marble

Marble has
always been highly valued for its beauty, strength, and resistance to fire and erosion. The ancient Italian & Greeks were good users of marble in their buildings and statues. Some of wonders of world were crafted centuries ago in marble and still showing the same elegance and grandeur. P#d98603ominantly it is used as a very important flooring material due to its cool and soothing colours in the form of slabs tiles and various other architectural products. Its processing is easier against hard rocks like granite and hence widely popular.

Limestone

Limestone are calcareous sedimentary rocks formed at the bottom of lakes and seas with the accumulation of shells, bones and other calcium rich goods under great pressure. It is composed of mainly calcite (CaCO3)..
The rock which contain more than 95% of calcium carbonate is known as high-calcium limestone. Recrystallised limestone takes good polish and is usually used as decorative and building stone.

Limestone that will take a polish are conside#d98603 marbles by most people, but technically, if there are still shells visible or the structure is not crystalline, it is still a limestone.

Physical Properties of Limestone

Physically, Lime stones are Quite impervious, Hard, Compact, fine to very fine grained calcareous rocks of sedimentary nature.

Hardness

2.5 to 4 on Moh's Scale

Density

2.5 to 2.7 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

60-170 N/mm2

Water Absorption

Less than 1%

Porosity

Quite low

Weather Impact

Resistant

 

Chemical Properties of Limestone

Chemically, they are calcareous rocks principally of calcitic minerals with minor amounts of alumina, ferric & alkaline oxides.

Lime (CaO)

38-42%

Silica (SiO2)

15-18%

Alumina (Al2O3)

3-5%

MgO

0.5 to 3%

FeO + Fe2O3

1-1.5%

Alkalies

1-1.5%

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

30-32%

Limestone is used in flooring cladding and even in making vanity tops .

 

Sand Stone

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock group which is mostly made up of tiny grains of quartz. Most of sandstones are formed in oceans, lakes and rivers where tiny bits of rock and dirt settle to the bottom. Year after year, these layers of sand get buried under tons of more sand and dirt under pressure and turned into solid rock called Sandstone . It is found in many colors.



Physical Properties of Sandstone

Physically, they are very Hard, Compact, Fine grained, Equi-granular homogeneous rocks of sedimentary nature

Color

Uniform with minor variations .

Hardness

6.5 to 7 on Moh's Scale

Density

2.3 to 2.4 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

90 to 140 N/mm2

Modulus of Rupture

16-40 N/mm2

Water Absorption

1.0 - 1.2 %

Porosity

Low to very low.

Weather Impact

Resistant



Chemical Properties of Sandstone

Chemically sandstones are quite resistant and Mono-Mineralic rocks, principally composed of silica. The other minor constituents vary from origin to origin.

SiO2

95-97%

Iron (Fe2O3)

0.5%-1.5%

Alumina (Al2O3)

1 to 1.5%

Soda (Na2O) & Potash (Kro)

< 1%

Lime (CaO)

< 0.5%

Magnesia (MgO)

< 0.5%

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

< 0.5%

 

 

They are highly resistant to acids, alkalis and have high thermal impact. Insolubility in acids and alkalis is about 97%.

Teakwood and Rainbow sandstones differ from above physical properties

Hardness

6 to 6.5 on Moh's Scale

Density

2.07 to 2.11 Kg/cm3

Compressive Strength

41 to 63 N/mm2

Modulus of Rupture

7-11 N/mm2

Water Absorption

8.0 - 11 %

Porosity

Comparatively Porous

Weather Impact

Resistant


  •          Physical Properties of Jodhpur Pink and Jodhpur #d98603 Sandstone

  •          Color
    The color varies from #d98603, green, yellow, gray and white. The variation is result of the binding material and its percentage constituent.

  •          Water Absorption
    The capacity of water absorption is not more than 1.0%

  •          Hardness
    Lies between 6 to 7 on Moh's Scale Density 2.32 to 2.42 Kg/m3

  •          Porosity
    The porosity varies from low to very low.

  •          Compressive Strength
    Varies from 365 to 460 Kg/m2

  •          Chemical Properties

  •          Chemically Jodhpur sandstone is very resistant Mono-Mineralic rock, with silica as the principal. The percentage of each constituents is as follows:

S.No.

Type of Sandstone

SiO2

R2O3

CaO

MgO

LOI

1

Jodhpur Pink

95.52

0.35

0.29

0.21

0.75

2

Jodhpur #d98603

95.45

0.45

0.30

0.22

0.78


         Physio Mechanical properties

S.No.

Property

Method & Specification Nos.

Type of Sandstone

 

 

 

Jodhpur Pink

Jodhpur #d98603

1

Sp. Gravity

ASTM-C-97

2.40

2.53

2

Water Absorption (% Weight)

ASTM-C-97

2.21

1.67

3

Modulus of Rapture

ASTM-C-99

 

 

(a)

Dry parallel to rift

 

18

16

 

Perpendicular to rift

 

16

13

(b)

Wet parallel to rift

 

18

15

 

Perpendicular to rift

 

16

11

4

Compressive strength N/MM2

ASTM-170

 

 

(a)

Dry parallel to rift

 

93

91

 

Perpendicular to rift

 

72

100

(b)

Wet parallel to rift

 

63

63

 

Perpendicular to rift

 

48

60

5

Abrasion

IS- 1237

 

 

 

Av. Wear mm

 

2.4

2.6

 

Max Wear

 

2.7

2.8

Uses of Sandstone

  • Rough and weathe#d98603 sandstone is used as fireplaces, walls, and walkways.
  • As decorative stones.
  • As flooring or paving material.
  • Load bearing masonry and hence sandstone blocks are used as foundations and stonewalls.
  • Sandstone slabs and sandstone tiles are used in cladding.
  • It is used in chemical industries as flooring, wall fixing and lining due to its acid and alkali resistant properties.
  • It is ideal for carving and architectural uses as pillars, arches, garden furniture, fountains, landscaping products and stone arts & crafts.

Slate

Slates are dense and fine grained metamorphic rocks. The colour of slates are generally gray, #d98603, brown and green ranging from dark to light. It is produced by the compression of clays, shale, and various other rocks developing a characteristic cleavage consisting sericite and quartz with biotite, chlorite, and hematite as principal accessories.


Physical Properties of Slate


Physically these are Metamorphic-Argillaceous rocks, which has developed a well-marked splittable cleavages with or without developed recrystallization & spots/knots of minerals like garnet, pyrite, andulasite, etc. They are normally fine to medium grained, moderately hard & compact, less homogeneous with varying textures & shades. It has an ability to split into thin layers along the plane of cleavages due to flattened & elongated minerals along the plane of cleavage.

Hardness

3.0 to 4.0 on Moh's scale

Density

2.6 to 2.8 Kg/cm3

Modulus of Rupture

22 to 34 N/mm2

Compressive Strength

24 to 36 N/mm2

Specific Gravity

2.65 to 2.80

Porosity

Low to very low

Water Absorption

1.5 to 2%

Weather Impact

Resistant

Corrodibility

0.4 to 0.7%

Chemical Properties of Slate

Essentially mineral composition includes quartz, mica, chlorite, sericite & oxides of iron with occasional spots/knots of minerals like garnet, pyrite, andulasite, etc.

SiO2

55-65%

Iron (Fe2O3)

4%-8%

Alumina (Al2O3)

15 to 20%

Soda (Na2O) & Potash (K2O)

2-4%

Lime (CaO)

0.5-1%

Magnesia (MgO)

0.5-3%

TiO2

0.4-0.5%

Loss On Ignition (LOI)

3-4%

It is fairly resistant to acids and staining.

Uses of Slate

  •          Paving

  •          Stepping stone in garden